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What Is an Essential Question?
Nov 15, 2007
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What is an essential question? An essential question is – well, essential: important, vital, at the heart of the matter – the essence of the issue. Think of questions in your life that fit this definition – but don’t just yet think about it like a teacher; consider the question as a thoughtful adult. What kinds of questions come to mind? What is a question that any thoughtful and intellectually-alive person ponders and should keep pondering?

In Understanding by Design we remind readers that “essential” has a few different connotations: 

One meaning of “essential” involves important questions that recur throughout one’s life. Such questions are broad in scope and timeless by nature. They are perpetually arguable – What is justice?  Is art a matter of taste or principles? How far should we tamper with our own biology and chemistry?  Is science compatible with religion? Is an author’s view privileged in determining the meaning of a text? We may arrive at or be helped to grasp understandings for these questions, but we soon learn that answers to them are invariably provisional. In other words, we are liable to change our minds in response to reflection and experience concerning such questions as we go through life, and that such changes of mind are not only expected but beneficial. A good education is grounded in such life-long questions, even if we sometimes lose sight of them while focusing on content mastery. The big-idea questions signal that education is not just about learning “the answer” but about learning how to learn.  

A second connotation for “essential” refers to key inquiries within a discipline. Essential questions in this sense are those that point to the big ideas of a subject and to the frontiers of technical knowledge. They are historically important and very much “alive” in the field. “What is healthful eating?” engenders lively debate among nutritionists, physicians, diet promoters, and the general public. “Is any history capable of escaping the social and personal history of its writers?” has been widely and heatedly debated among scholars for the past fifty years, and compels novices and experts alike to ponder potential bias in any historical narrative. 

There is a third important connotation for the term “essential” that refers to what is needed for learning core content. In this sense, a question can be considered essential when it helps students make sense of important but complicated ideas, knowledge, and know-how – findings that may be understood by experts, but not yet grasped or seen as valuable by the learner. In what ways does light act wave-like? How do the best writers hook and hold their readers? What models best describe a business cycle? By actively exploring such questions, the learner is helped to arrive at important understandings as well as greater coherence in their content knowledge and skill.

A question is essential when it: 

  1. causes genuine and relevant inquiry into the big ideas and core content;
  2. provokes deep thought, lively discussion, sustained inquiry, and new understanding as well as more questions;
  3. requires students to consider alternatives, weigh evidence, support their ideas, and justify their answers;
  4. stimulates vital, on-going rethinking of big ideas, assumptions, and prior lessons;
  5. sparks meaningful connections with prior learning and personal experiences;
  6. naturally recurs, creating opportunities for transfer to other situations and subjects.

Here is a variety of subject-area examples of such questions:

How well can fiction reveal truth?

  • Why did that particular species/culture/person thrive and that other one barely survive or die? 
  • How does what we measure influence how we measure? How does how we measure influence what we measure?  
  • Is there really a difference between a cultural generalization and a stereotype? 
  • How should this be modeled? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this model? (science, math, social sciences)

Note that an essential question is different from many of the questions teachers typically ask students in class. The most commonly asked question type is factual – a question that seeks “the” correct answer. For example, in a history class, teachers are constantly asking questions to elicit recall or attention to some important content knowledge: “When did the war break out? Who was President at the time? Why, according to the text, did Congress pass that bill?”

Such questions are clearly not “essential” in the sense discussed above. Rather, they are what we might call ‘teacherly’ questions – a question essential to a teacher who wants students to know an important answer.

Is such a leading question bad? No. There are all sorts of good pedagogical reasons for using a question format to underscore knowledge or to call attention to a forgotten or overlooked idea. But those questions are not “essential” in the sense of signaling genuine, important and necessarily-ongoing inquiries. Teachers have to be careful not to conflate two ideas: “essential to me in my role as a teacher” and “essential to anyone as a thinking person and inquiring student for making meaning of facts in this subject.”


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Displaying 101 - 110 of 124 found comments.  Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13
Posted by: Tait Klein
Oct 26, 2018
"Essential" questions are important, but even more essential are the foundations of big ideas BEFORE you start asking those questions. This article does a great jjob of putting these two together for you, as an educator.
Posted by: Audra Crowe
Oct 26, 2018
I do believe this article is very helpful in all stages of life. At every age these questions and topics can be relevant. What we need to step back and look at is the meaning this has to different types of societies and how we can adjust it with the students we will impact.
Posted by: michael coon
Nov 06, 2018
What they refer to as "teacherly" questions are often the fuel for the higher level discussions inherent in essential questions.
Posted by: Fabio Ortiz
Nov 09, 2018
These essential questions are the vehicles that make possible critical and creative thinking in students. Thus, when they mature, they will realize that they have learned how to critically think when they can find the flaws and/or errors, in our worlds society, community, school, etc. Then, they will be able to creatively find a solution or a potential way of improvement.
Posted by: Olivia Trochesset
Nov 12, 2018
Where does policy end and doing what is best for children begin?
Posted by: Devona Daugherty
Dec 01, 2018
I think that "essential" questions must be presented to students so that they can determine what they believe and why they believe, If a student only believe something because that is what the teacher said, then they have never taken ownership. Once faced with adversity , students cannot stand on their own but simply get tossed around asmthough on a wave.
Posted by: Terri Pollard
Jan 21, 2019
"Essential" questions helps the learners make sense of their own thinking in relationship to their experiences. Thus, it provides an opportunity for building a foundation of knowing something about a particular topic.
Posted by: John McGrath
Feb 08, 2019
Although I love the concepts of the article above I honestly have to say that "essentiality" is in the eye of the beholder. What might not "cause genuine and relevant inquiry into the big ideas and core content" to one, might cause that for another. I think that things are deemed "essential" if they are important to the learner. The example used in History "when did the war broke out" is an essential question if the learner is connected to that happenstance in that time-frame. The question of "when" can put the learner in the time-frame illustrated, and prompt the question of what was happening in that era. A family member could have died in the war, which would allow the learner to connect to that time-frame and the prompt the other questions that naturally come as a result: Why? How? It allows for some semblance of understanding of the world around them when they see the timeline of events transpire. All learning is important and be connected therefore can be deemed essential by whomever the audience is of the information being presented.
Posted by: Cynthia Brandt
Feb 18, 2019
I enjoy the idea of the essential question versus specific content matter. Is this the forest for the trees? Or is this how the tree is a poem for life.
Posted by: Missy Bazzell
Apr 06, 2019
This article has some great points on what an essential question actually is. As a first grade teacher who has a weekly essential question built into the ELA program, I relate to this article personally. The fact that an essential question "naturally recurs" was the most important connection I made with this article. It is so important to make sure the learning transfers naturally between subjects!
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